Tropic hormones

Role of Trophic Hormones in Regulation of Growth and Function of Responsive Cells

The role of the trophic hormones, Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and Luteinizing hormone (LH) in regulating growth and function of adrenocortical cells and Leydig cells respectively, has been investigated using an immunological approach. Antisera to porcine ACTH and ovine LH were raised in rabbits and characterized for specificity, ability to neutralize rat ACTH and LH respectively. Administration of ACTH antiserum to rats for 6 to 10 days did not cause any decrease in the weight of the adrenals, but resulted in a significant decrease in serum corticosterone. Also when the adrenocortical cells isolated from normal rabbit serum (NRS) or ACTH antiserum treated rats were examined for their ability to respond to exogenous ACTH, there was a drastic decrease in the response of the latter as judged by corticosterone production. It is known that in an unilaterally adrenalectomized rat there is compensatory hypertrophy of the remaining adrenal and this growth has been shown to be due to actual increase in cell number. Administration of ACTH antiserum to unilaterally adrenalectomized rats did not in any way prevent the compensatory hypertrophy response of the remaining adrenal as judged by weight, DNA, protein or yield of adrenocortical cells.


These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

eBook EUR 42.79 Price includes VAT (Bulgaria)

Softcover Book EUR 53.49 Price includes VAT (Bulgaria)

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout



  • Aguilera, G., Menard, R. H., and Catt, K. J., 1980a, Regulatory actions of angiotensin II on receptors and steroidogenic enzymes in adrenal glomerulosa cells, Endocrinology 107:55. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Aguilera, G., Schirar, A., Baukal, A., Catt, K. J., 1980b, Angiotensin II receptors: Properties and regulation in adrenal glomerulosa cells, Circ. Res. Suppl. 46:118. CASGoogle Scholar
  • Aguilera, G., Fujita, K., and Catt, K. J., 1981, Mechanism of inhibition of aldosterone secretion by adrenocorticotrophin, Endocrinology 108:522. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Astwood, E. B., 1955, Growth hormone and adrenocorticotrophin, in: “The Hormones” Volume 3, p. 235, G. Pincus and K. V. Thimann, eds., Academic Press, New York. Google Scholar
  • Bascom, K. F., and Osterud, H. L., 1925, Quantitative studies of the testicle. II Pattern and total tubule length in the testicles of certain mammals, Anat. Rec. 31:159. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Baumann, K., and Muller, 1974, Effects of hypophysectomy with or without ACTH maintenance therapy on the final steps of aldosterone biosynthesis in the rat, Acta Endocrinol. (kbh) 76:102. CASGoogle Scholar
  • Blairwest, J. R., Coghlan, J. P., Denton, D. A., Goding, J. R., Wintour, M., and Wright, R. D., 1963, The control of aldosterone secretion, Rec. Prog. Horm. Res. 19:311. CASGoogle Scholar
  • Bourdel, G., and Li, C. H., 1963, Effect of rabbit antiserum to sheep pituitary interstitial stimulating hormone in adult female rats, Acta Endocrinol.(kbh) 42:473. CASGoogle Scholar
  • Bransome, E. D., and Reddy, W. J., 1961, Studies of adrenal nuclei acids: The influence of ACTH, unilateral adrenalectomy and growth hormone upon adrenal RNA and DNA in the dog, Endocrinology 69:997. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Carr, I., 1959, The human adrenal gland at the time of death, J. Path. Bacteriol. 78:533. CrossRefCASGoogle Scholar
  • Cater, D. B., and Stack-Dunne, M. P., 1953, Histological changes in the adrenal of the hypophysectomized rat after treatment with pituitary preparations, J. Path. Bacteriol. 66:119. CrossRefCASGoogle Scholar
  • Cater, D. B., and Stack-Dunne, M. P., 1955, The effects of growth hormone and corticotrophin upon the adrenal weight and adrenocortical mitotic activity, J. Endocrinol. 12:174. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Christensen, A. K., 1975, Leydig cells in: “Handbook of Physiology”, Section 7, Volume 5, p. 57, R. O. Greep, E. B. Astwood, eds., Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD. Google Scholar
  • Christensen, A., and Peacock, K., 1980, Increase in leydig cell number in testes of adult rats treated chronically with an excess of human chorionic gonadotrophin, Biol. Reprod. 22:383. PubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Cooke, B. A., Manszen, F. H. A., Clotscher, W. F., and Van Der Molen, H. J., 1975, Effect of protein synthesis inhibitors on testosterone production in rat testes interstitial tissue and leydig cell preparations, Biochem. J. 150:413. PubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Contopoulous, A. N., and Hayashida, T., 1963, Neutralization of activity of circulating gonadotrophic hormones by antiserum to rat pituitary, J. Endocrinol. 25:451. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Dallman, M. F., Engeland, W. C., Schinsako, J., 1976, Compensatory adrenal growth: a neorally mediated reflex, Am. J. Physiol. 231:408. PubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Dallman, M. F., Engeland, W. C., McBride, M. H., 1977, The neural regulation of compensatory hypertrophy, Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 297:373. CrossRefCASGoogle Scholar
  • Dallman, M. F., Engeland, W. C., Holzwarth, M. A., Scholz, P. M., 1980, Adrenocorticotropin inhibits compensatory adrenal growth after unilateral adrenalectomy, Endocrinology 107:1397. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Davis, J. O., 1975, Regulation of aldosterone secretion in: “Handbook of Physiology”, Section 7, Volume 4, p. 77, R. 0. Greep and E. B. Astwood, eds., Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD. Google Scholar
  • Dixon, H. B. F., Stack-Dunne, M. P., Young, F. G., and Carter, D. B., 1951, Influence of adrenotrophic hormone fractions on adrenal repair and on adrenal ascorbic acid, Nature168:1084. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Douglas, J., Catt, 1976, Regulation of Angiotensin II receptors in rat adrenal cortex by dietary electrolytes, J. Clin. Invest. 58:834. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Douglas, J., Aguilera, G., Kondo, T., Catt, K. J., 1978, Angiotensin II receptors and aldosterone production in rat adrenal glomerulosa cells, Endocrinology102:685. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Dym, M., Madhwaraj, H. G., and Chemes, H. E., 1977, Response of the testes to selective withdrawl of LH or FSH using antigonadotropic sera in: “The Testes in Normal and Infertile Man”, p. 97, P. Troen and H. R. Nankin, ed., Raven Press, New York. Google Scholar
  • Eik-Nes, K. B., 1970, Synthesis and secretion of andostenedione and testosterone, in: “The Androgens of the Testis”, p. 1, K. B. Eik-Nes, ed., Marrel and Dekker, New York. Google Scholar
  • Farese, R. V., and Reddy, W. J., 1963, Observations on the interactions between adrenal protein RNA and DNA during prolonged ACTH administration, Biochem. Biophys. Acta76:145. CrossRefCASGoogle Scholar
  • Fredlund, P., Saltman, S., and Catt, K. J., 1975, Aldosterone production by isolated adrenal glomerulosa cells: stimulation by physiological concentrations of Angiotensin II, Endocrinology 97:1577. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Garren, L. D., 1968, The mechanism of action of adrenocorticotropic hormone, Vit and Horm. 26:119. CrossRefCASGoogle Scholar
  • Garren, L. D., Gill, G. N., Masui, H., and Walton, G. M., 1971, On the mechanism of action of ACTH, Rec. Prog. Horm. Res. 27:433. PubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Gill, G. N., 1972, Mechanism of ACTH action, Metabolism, 21:571. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Gill, G. N., III, C. R., Simonian, M. H., 1977, Angiotensin stimulation of bovine adrenocortical cell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74:5569. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Glossmann, H., Baukal, A., and Catt, K. J., 1974, Properties of angiotensin receptors in the bovine and rat adrenal cortex, J. Biol. Chem. 249:825. PubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Gondos, B., Jagannadha Rao, A., and Ramachandran, J., 1980, Effects of antiserum to luteinizing hormone on the structure and function of rat leydig cells, J. Endocrinol. 87:265. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Gospadorowicz, D., Jones, K., Sato, G., 1974, Purification of a growth factor for ovarian cells from bovine pituitary gland, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 71:2295. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Gospadorowicz, D., and Handley, H. H., 1975, Stimulation of division of Y-l adrenal cells by a growth factor isolated from bovine pituitary glands, Endocrinology 97:102. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Greep, R. O., 1974, History of research on anterior typophysical hormones, in: “Handbook of Physiology”, Section 7, Volume 4, p. 1, R. O. Greep, E. B. Astwood, eds., Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD. Google Scholar
  • Hall, P. F., 1970, Gonadotrophic regulation of testicular function, in: “The Androgens of the Testis”, p. 73, K. B. Eik-Nes, ed., Mercel Dekker Inc., New York. Google Scholar
  • Haning, R., Tait, S. A., and Tait, J. F., 1970, In vitro effects of ACTH, Angiotensin, Serotonin and Potassium on steroid output and conversion of corticosterone to aldosterone by isolated adrenal cells, Endocrinology 87:1147. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Hornsby, P. J., O’Hare, M. J., and Neville, A. M., 1973, Effect of ACTH on biosynthesis of aldosterone and corticosterone by monolayer culture of rat adrenal zona glomerulosa cells, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 54:1554. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Hornsby, P. J., O’Hare, M. J., and Neville, A. M., 1974, Functional and morphological observations on rat adrenal zona glomerulosa cells in monolayer culture, Endocrinology95:1240. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Huhtaniemi, I. T., Mohan, K., and Catt, K. J., 1981, Regulation of LH receptors and steroidogenesis in the neonatal rat testes, Endocrinology 109:588. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Hansson, V., Ritzen, M., Purvis, K., French, F. S., 1978, Endocrine approaches to male contraception, Scriptor, Copenhagen. Google Scholar
  • Idleman, S., 1970, Ultrastructure of the mammalian adrenal cortex, Int. Rev. Cytol. 27:181. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Imrie, R. C., Ramaiah, T. R., Antoni, F., Hutchinson, W. C., 1965, The effect of ACTH on the nuclei acid metabolism of the rat adrenal gland, J. Endocrinol. 32:302. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Ingle, D. J., 1951, The functional interrelationship of the anterior pituitary and adrenal cortex, Ann. Inter. Med. 35:652. CASGoogle Scholar
  • Jagannadha Rao, A., Madhwa Raj, H. G., and Moudgal, N. R., 1972, Effect of LH, FSH and their antisera on gestation in the hamster, (Mesocricetus auratus), J. Reprod. Fert. 29:239. CrossRefCASGoogle Scholar
  • Jagannadha Rao, A., Moudgal, N. R., Madhwa Raj, H. G., Lipner, H., Greep, R. P., 1974, The role of FSH and LH in the initiation of ovulation in rats and hamsters; a study using rabbit antisera to ovine FSH and LH, J. Reprod. Fert. 37:323. CrossRefCASGoogle Scholar
  • Jagannadha Rao, A., Long, J. A., and Ramachandran, J., 1978, Effects of antiserum to adrenocorticotropin on adrenal growth and function, Endocrinology 102:371. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Jagannadha Rao, A., and Lehoux, J. G., 1979, Effect of ACTH on 125I labelled angiotensin II binding and response by rat adrenal glomerulosa cells, FEBS Letters 105:325. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Jagannadha Rao, A., Behrens, C., and Ramachandran, J., 1980, Immunochemical studies of adrenocorticotropin using tritium labelled hormone, Int. J. Peptide Protein Res. 15:480. CrossRefCASGoogle Scholar
  • Jagannadha Rao, A., 1982, Effect of rabbit antiserum to ovine LH on reproductive organs in male hamsters and guinea pigs, Experientia, 38:279. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Jailer, J. W., Longson, D., Christy, N. D., 1957, Cushing’s Syndrome II. Adrenal weight maintaining activity in the plasma of patients with cushing’s syndrome, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 36:1608. CASGoogle Scholar
  • Janszen, F. H. A., Cooke, B. A., Van Der Molen, H. J., 1977, Specific protein synthesis in isolated rat leydig cells, Biochem. J. 162:341. PubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Kahri, A. J., 1966, Histochemical and electron microscopic studies on the cells of rat adrenal cortex in tissue culture, Acta Endocrinol. 52: Suppl. (108) 1. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  • Kahri, A. I., Huhtaniemi, I., and Salmenpera, M., 1976, Steroid formation and differentiation of cortical cells in tissue culture of human foetal adrenals in the presence and absence of ACTH, Endocrinology 98:33. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Kimura, T., 1969, Effect of hypophysectomy and ACTH administration on the level of adrenal cholesterol side chain desmolase, Endocrinology 85:492. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Kowi, J., 1970, ACTH and the metabolism of adrenal cell cultures. Rec. Prog. Horm. Res. 26:623. Google Scholar
  • Kortiz, S. B., Girija, B., and Schwartz, E., 1977, ACTH action on adrenal steroidogenesis, Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 297:329. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Liddle, G. W., Island, D., Rinfret, A. P., Forsham, P. H., 1954, Factors enhancing the response of the human adrenal to corticotropin. Is there an adrenal growth factor? J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 14:839. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Liles, S., and Ramachandran, J., 1977, Regulation of 5–3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isomerase activity in adrenocortical cell cultures by ACTH, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 79:226. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Long, J. A., 1975, Zonation of the mammalian adrenal cortex, in: “Handbook of Physiology”, Section 7, Volume 6, p. 13, R. R. O. Greep and E. B. Astwood, eds., Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD. Google Scholar
  • Lostroh, A. J., and Li, C. H., 1957, Stimulation of the sex accessories of hypophysectomized male rats by non-gonadotropic hromones of the pituitary gland, Acta Endocrinol. 25:1. PubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Madhwa Raj, H. G., and Moudgal, N. R., 1970, Hormonal control of gestation in the rat, Endocrinology 86:874. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Malamed, S., 1975, Ultrastructure of the mammalian adrenal cortex in relation to secretory of function in: “Handbook of Physiology”, Section 7, Volume 6, p. 25, R. O. Greep and E. B. Estwood, eds., Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore. Google Scholar
  • Manuelidis, L., and Mulrow, D., 1974, Aldosterone production by adrenal cultures via dibCAMP and the reversibility of ACTH and dibCAMP induced changes, Endocrinology 95:728. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Masui, H., and Garren, L. D., 1970, The mechanism of action of adrenocorticotrophic hormone stimulation of DNA polymerase and thymidine kinase activity in adrenal glands, J. Biol. Chem. 245:2627. PubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Masui, H., and Garren, L. D., 1971, Inhibition of replication in functional mouse adrenal tumor cells by adrenocorticotrophic hormone mediated by adrenosine 3’5’ cycle monophosphate, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 68:3206. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Means, A. R., Dedman, M. R., Tash, J. S., Tindal, D. J., Vansickle, M., Walsh, M. J., 1980, Regulation of the testes sertoli cell by follicle stimulating hormone, Ann. Rev. Physiol. 42:59. CrossRefCASGoogle Scholar
  • Moudgal, N. R., Jagannadha Rao, A., Maneckjee, R., Murlidhar, K., Venkatramiah, M., Sheela Rani, C. S., 1974, Gonadotropins and their antibodies, Rec. Prog. Horm. Res. 30:47. PubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Muller, A. F., Riondel, A. M., Manning, E. L., 1956, Effect of corticotrophin on secretion of aldosterone, Lancet 2:1021. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Muller, J., 1970, Decreased aldosterone production by rat adrenal tissue in vitro due to treatment with 9α flurocortisol dexamethasone and adrenocorticotrophin in vivo, Acta Endocrinol. (kbh) 63:1. Google Scholar
  • Muller, J., 1978, Suppression of aldosterone biosynthesis by treatment of rats with adrenocorticotrophin: Comparison with glucocorticoid effects, Endocrinology 103:2061. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Nieschlag, E., (ed.), 1975, Immunization with hormones in reproduction research, North Holland, Amsterdam. Google Scholar
  • Nussdorfer, G. G., Mazzocchi, G., Robba, C., Belloni, A. S., Rebuftat, D., 1977, Effects of ACTH and dexamethasone on the zona glomerulosa of the rat adrenal cortex: an ultrastructural sterological study, Acta. Endocrinol. (kbh) 85:608. CASGoogle Scholar
  • O’Hare, M. J., and Neville, A. M., 1973, Morphological responses to corticotropin and cyclin AMP by adult rat adrenocortical cells in monolayer culture, J. Endocrinol. 56:529. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  • Payet, N., Isler, H., 1976, Adrenal Glomerulosa mitotic stimulation by posterior pituitary hormones, Cell Tiss. Res. 172:93. CrossRefCASGoogle Scholar
  • Payne, A. H., Downing, J. R., and Wong, K. L., 1980, LH receptors and testosterone synthesis in two distinct populations of Leydig cells, Endocrinology 106:1424. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Peytremann, A., Nicholson, W. E., Brown, R. D., Liddle, G. W., and Hardman, J. G., 1973, Comparative effects of angiotensin and ACTH on cyclic AMP and steroidogenesis in isolated bovine adrenal cells, J. Clin. Invest. 52:835. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Purvis, J. L., Canick, J. A., Mason, J. I., Estabrook, R. W., and McCarthy, J. L., 1973, Lifetime of adrenal cytochrome P-450 as influenced by ACTH, Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 212:319. CrossRefCASGoogle Scholar
  • Purvis, K., Clausen, O. P. F., and Hansson, V., 1978, Functional characteristics of rat Leydig cells, Ann. Biol. Anim. Biochem. Biophys. 18:595. CrossRefCASGoogle Scholar
  • Purvis, K., Cusan, L., and Hansson, V., 1981, Regulation of steroidogenesis and steroid action in Leydig cells, J. Steroid Biochem. 15:77. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Purvis, K., Clausen, O. P. F., and Hansson, V., 1980, Effects of age and hypophysectomy on responsiveness of rat Leydig cells to LH/hCG, J. Reprod. Fertil. 60:77. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Quadri, S. K., and Spies, H. G., 1966, Inhibition of spermatogenesis and ovulation in rabbits with antiovine LH rabbit serum, Proc. Soc. Expt. Biol. Med. 123:809. CASGoogle Scholar
  • Ramachandran, J., and Suyama, A. T., 1975, Inhibition of replication of normal adrenocortical cells in culture by adrenocorticotropin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72:113. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Ramachandran, J., Jagannadha Rao, A., and Liles, S., 1977, Studies on the trophic action of ACTH, Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 297:336. CrossRefCASGoogle Scholar
  • Rybak, S. M., and Ramachandran, J., 1982, Mechanism of induction of 5–3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrognease-isomerse activity in rat adrenocortical cells by corticotropin, Endocrinology111:427. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Sairam, M. R., Jagannadha Rao, A., and Li, C. H., 1974, Termination of pregnancy in the rat by the antiserum to β subunit of ovine interstitial cell stimulating hormone, Proc. Soc. Expt. Biol. Med. 147:823. CASGoogle Scholar
  • Sairam, M. R., Jagannadha Rao, A., and Li, C. H., 1975, The use of antiserum to rat prolactin to evaluate its role as luteotropin in the hamster, Acta Endocrinol. 79:351. PubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Suyama, A. T., Long, J. A., and Ramachandran, J., 1977, Ultrastructural changes induced by ACTH in normal adrenocortical cells in culture, J. Cell Biol. 72:757. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Schafer, G., Helstein, A. F., Hilz, H., 1982, Steroidogenic capacity of isolated mouse Leydig cells does not decrease with age, Endocrinology 110:1362. CrossRefPubMedCASGoogle Scholar
  • Smith, P. E., 1927, The disabilities caused by hypophysectomy and their repair, J. Ann. Med. Assoc. 88:158. CrossRefCASGoogle Scholar
  • Smith, P. E., 1930, Hypophysectomy and replacement therapy in the rat, Ann. J. Anat. 45:205. Google Scholar
  • Steinberger, E., and Steinberger, A., 1972, The testis: Growth vs. function in: “Regulation of Organ and Tissue Growth” p. 299, R. G. Goss, ed., Academic Press, New York. Google Scholar
  • Tepperman, J., Engel, F. L., Long, C. N. H., 1943, A review of adrenal cortical hypertrophy, Endocrinology 32:373. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

  1. Department of Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560 012, India A. Jagannadha Rao
  2. Department of Anatomy, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 04143, USA J. A. Long
  3. Department of Pathology, University of Conneticuit Health Centre, Farmington, CT, 060032, USA B. D. Gondos
  4. Faculty of Medicine, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1H 5N4, Canada J. G. Lehoux
  5. Hormone Research Laboratory, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 04143, USA J. Ramachandran