What is the difference between glands and hormones?

Endocrine and Exocrine Glands

Endocrine And Exocrine glands in human beings manufacture hormones and secrete them directly into the bloodstream to act at distant sites. Tap to learn more.

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The endocrine system in the human body is the system of glands and organs located in different places. It is similar to the nervous system in that it helps control and regulate the overall functions of the human body. Although the nervous system builds communication through neurotransmitters and nerve impulses, the endocrine system establishes communication through chemical messengers such as hormones. The exocrine glands can be defined as the gland that produces tears, milk, sweat, saliva, and digestive juices.

Endocrine Glands

The human endocrine glands are a combination of a complex network of glands responsible for producing several hormones at the right intervals in the human body that help regulate the functions of tissues and cells in the body. Some of the endocrine glands are specific to either ovary in females or testes in males.

Major Endocrine Glands

Pituitary gland

The pituitary gland, which resembles a pea and is one of the eight interconnected main endocrine glands, is located deep within the skull. It is responsible for controlling the activity of numerous other endocrine glands and weighs roughly 0.5 grams. As a result, it is often regarded as the human body’s master gland.

The pituitary gland’s hormones promote proper blood pressure, all sex organ functions, energy functions, metabolism, and thyroid gland function. It also aids in other areas of pregnancy, including nursing, birthing, pain reduction, and temperature management.

Thyroid gland

The thyroid gland, as the name implies, is positioned in the front of the thyroid in the neck, below Adam’s apple. It is made up of two interconnected lobes. A small strip of tissue termed the thyroid isthmus connects the lowest two-thirds of the lobes. Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) are the main hormones produced by the thyroid gland (T3).

Parathyroid glands

The parathyroid glands are tiny endocrine glands located at the back of the neck. Four primary parathyroid glands are located near the rear of the thyroid glands in the human body. The parathyroid glands’ hormones are primarily responsible for managing the number of minerals, calcium, and phosphorus generated in the bones and blood.

Adrenal glands

This gland, also known as the suprarenal gland, is positioned above each kidney and is no bigger than a walnut in size. It generates over 150 hormones that regulate the body’s metabolism, immunological system, blood pressure, and response to stress, among other things. Adrenaline, the most well-known hormone, stimulates fight or flight.


The pancreas is an endocrine and exocrine gland found behind the stomach in the human body. It is around 6 inches long and flat in form. The pancreas’s two major roles are-


Several endocrine glands in the human body are gender-specific, such as the testes in men and the ovaries in females. Ovaries generate oestrogen and progesterone hormones, which increase female sex characteristics and contribute to reproduction, as well as govern uterine growth and function. Testosterone, the male sex hormone, is generated by the testes, which are responsible for male sex characteristics. These are also in charge of the body’s hair and muscular growth.

Pineal gland

The epiphysis cerberin is a tiny endocrine gland positioned between the brain and the pineal gland. Melatonin, a hormone produced by the pineal gland, successfully controls sleep patterns in seasonal and circadian cycles. Its consequences may not be evaluated till the individual is sleep deprived or overslept.

Exocrine Glands

A gland that produces and releases substances such as sweating, tears, saliva, lactation, and gastrointestinal fluids through a duct or outlet on the body’s surface. Sweat glands, salivary glands, lacrimal glands, mammary glands, and digestive glands in the stomach, pancreas, and intestines are examples of exocrine glands. Exocrine glands secrete their secretions by three mechanisms: merocrine, apocrine, and holocrine. Exocytosis is the process through which merocrine gland secretions exit from the cell.

Endocrine and Exocrine Glands: Difference

  1. Ducts do not exist in endocrine glands. Ducts are found in exocrine glands.
  2. Hormones are secretory products of endocrine glands. Sweat, enzymes, mucus, and sebum are exocrine gland secretory products.
  3. Secretory materials of endocrine glands are discharged into the circulation and finally reach the target organ. A duct transports secretory products of exocrine glands to an interior organ or the external surface.
  4. Thyroid glands, parathyroid glands, pituitary glands, and adrenal glands are all examples of endocrine glands. Salivary glands, pancreas, liver, Brunner’s glands, and esophageal glands are all examples of exocrine glands.


We discussed endocrine glands, exocrine glands, the difference between endocrine and exocrine glands, and other related topics through the study material notes on the difference between endocrine and exocrine glands

The endocrine glands are ductless glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream and allow them to travel to cells in other areas of the body. Endocrine hormones regulate mood, growth and development, organ function, metabolism, and reproduction. Exocrine glands are those that secrete things outwardly. These are the substances that are secreted on the surface of the body via a duct.