How are hormones classified?

How are hormones classified?

Evaluation Of Crude Drugs. Definition: – Confirmation of identity and determination of quality and purity of crude drugs is called as evaluation of crude drugs. Besides confirmation of identity and determination of quality and purity the term drug evaluation also covers detection and determination of the type of adulteration present. Methods of Evaluation : – Organoleptic evaluation. Microscopic evaluation. Chemical evaluation. Physical evaluation. Biological evaluation. 1) Organoleptic evaluation: – Examination of the drug by color, odor, shape size, taste, touch, texture, and sound is known as Organoleptic evaluation. e.g. taste of fennel is sweet. Taste of clove is pungent. Leaf of datura is hairy. While evaluating by this method there are certain restrictions like changes in shape & size of drugs during drying & packing so it is Difficult to the study the drug by organoleptic evaluation. e.g. length of the cinnamon quill is 1 meter but mostly

Size Reduction.

Definition & Importance of Size reduction Size Reduction or Comminution is a pharmaceutical process where bigger drug particles are converted into smaller drug particle as per requirement. Importance: To increase the rate of a solution: Size reduction reduces particle size and increases effective surface area which in turn increases the rate of solution. To increase the rate of extraction: Rate of extraction is directly proportional to Size reduction. Smaller particle size allows faster penetration of menstruum and hence fastens the extraction process. Mixing: Smaller particle size ensures effective mixing which is an essential thing for many pharmaceutical dosage forms. Bioavailability: As particle size decreases the rate of absorption increases. Hence size reduction ensures good bioavailability e.g Griseofulvin. Drying: Reduction in particle size increases effective surface area and fastens the process of drying. To facilitate Filtration: Rate of filtrat

Important schedules in Pharmacy.

Important schedules in Pharmacy. Schedules of Forensic Pharmacy makes a scoring question in GPAT exam, lets have a glance at important schedules of pharmacy. SCHDULE Details A Application for the licenses, issue and renewal of licenses, for sending memoranda under the act B Rate of fee for test or analysis by the Central Drugs Laboratory or the Government Analyst. C List of biological and other special products whose import, sale, import, distribution and manufacture are governed by special provisions. C1 List of other special products whose import, sale, import, distribution and manufacture are governed by special provisions. D List of drugs exempted from the provisions of import of drugs. E1 List of poisonous substances under the Ayurvedic, Siddha and Unani systems of medicin

Rate of Drying Curve.

Definition Drying is defined as the removal of liquid from a product usually with application of heat. Rate of Drying Curve. Drying process can be divided into three periods Initial Adjustment Period. Constant drying rate period. First falling drying rate period. Second falling rate period. Initial Adjustment Period (A-B): Also called the “ Heating up” period . In this period the substance gets heat and increases in temperature. Drying has not yet started. Constant drying rate period (B-C): During this period the temperature of the solid and the rate of drying remain constant. The moisture evaporating from the surface is replaced by water diffusing from the interior of the solid at a rate equal t o the rate of evaporation. The moisture content at the end of constant rate (point C) is referred to as the critical moisture content (CMC). At CMC, dry spots start appearing and drying rate starts falling . First falling drying rate period (C-D): This period is also called the period of

Factors affecting drug absorption.

Movement of unchanged form of drug molecules from site of administration to systemic circulation is called absorption. Various factors affect the rate of absorption they are listed as follows, Physico-chemical, Pharmaceutical and, Physiological. PHYSICOCHEMICAL FACTORS: Drug solubility and dissolution rate Particle size and effective surface area Polymorphism and amorphism Pseudo polymorphism (hydrates / solvates). Salt form of the drug. Lipophilicity of the drug – (pH partition hypothesis). pKa of the drug and pH – (pH partition hypothesis). Drug stability. PHARMACEUTICAL FACTORS: Disintegration time (tablets / capsules). Dissolution time. Manufacturing variables. Pharmaceutical ingredients (excipients / adjuvants). Nature and type of dosage form. Product age and storage conditions PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS: Age. Gastric emptying time. Intestinal transit time. Gastrointestinal pH. Disease states. Blood flow through the GIT. Gastrointestinal contents: Other drugs b) Food c) Fluids d)