Endocrine System (Human Anatomy): Image, Functions, Diseases, and Treatments
There are glands and organs all across the body that make up the endocrine system. Its function is comparable to that of the nervous system in that it controls and regulates various bodily processes. Different from the neurological system, which communicates via electrical impulses and neurotransmitters, the endocrine system employs hormones to convey information.The endocrine system secretes hormones that control many different body processes. The endocrine system’s glands produce hormones that are distributed throughout the body via the circulatory system. The hormones then instruct these bodily systems on how to operate.
The endocrine system regulates several processes throughout the body, including metabolism, growth, and development. Having a sexual life and having children is a natural part of being human. BP, HR, and hunger rhythms of sleep and wakefulness Thermometer readings
Endocrine System Functions
Glands are organs that secrete essential compounds for bodily functions. Lymph nodes and sweat glands are examples of exocrine glands that are not part of the endocrine system but nonetheless play an important role in the body.Glandular organs of the endocrine system are responsible for hormone production, storage, and secretion. Each gland secretes a unique hormone that regulates a distinct set of target tissues and organs.
- Hypothalamus: Although the hypothalamus isn’t technically a gland, it does generate a number of hormones that regulate the pituitary. It has a role in controlling a wide variety of bodily processes, such as the waking and sleeping cycles, as well as temperature and hunger. It can also control how well other endocrine glands work.
- Pituitary: Just underneath the hypothalamus is where you’ll find your pituitary gland. Its hormones have an effect on development and reproduction. Additional endocrine glands may be under their influence.
- Pineal: Located smack dab in the centre of your brain is this gland. In terms of your natural sleep-wake rhythms, this is crucial.
- Thyroid: The thyroid gland is near the base of the skull in the front of the neck. This is a vital nutrient for metabolic function.
- Parathyroid: The parathyroid gland, also found at the front of the neck, regulates the amount of calcium in your body.
- Thymus: The thymus is a small, butterfly-shaped organ in the upper chest that, until puberty, secretes hormones critical to the maturation of T cells, a specific kind of white blood cell.
- Adrenal: There is an adrenal gland per kidney. Hormones are produced by these glands, and they play a crucial role in controlling physiological processes including blood pressure, heart rate, and the body’s reaction to stress.
- Pancreas: Behind the stomach, in the abdominal cavity, is where you’ll find your pancreas. Among its endocrine duties is maintaining healthy glucose levels. Some glands that normally secrete hormones also perform other, unrelated tasks. The ovaries and testes, for instance, serve the endocrine system by making eggs and sperm, but they also have other, non-hormonal functions.
- Endocrine system hormones: To communicate with cells, tissues, and organs throughout the body, the endocrine system produces and secretes hormones. When a hormone is secreted into the circulation, it travels to the organ or tissue that needs it. There, the hormone binds to a receptor and triggers a response.
Endocrine System Conditions
- Hyperthyroidism: Hyperthyroidism occurs when the thyroid generates an abnormally high quantity of thyroid hormone. This might be triggered by a number of circumstances, including autoimmune diseases. It manifests itself in a wide range of distressing ways, both physiologically and mentally.
- Graves‘ disease: One of the most common forms of hyperthyroidism is autoimmune hyperthyroidism. Graves’ illness is characterised by an overactive thyroid due to immune system attacks on the gland.
- Hypothyroidism: Hypothyroidism is the result of insufficient production of the hormone thyroxine by the thyroid gland. Like hyperthyroidism, there are a wide variety of potential causes.
- Cushing syndrome: An overabundance of the hormone cortisol causes Cushing syndrome. Common signs of Cushing syndrome include increased body fat (particularly in the face, belly, and shoulders), skin that is more easily bruised and cut, irregular menstrual cycles, decreased sexual desire and fertility (in males), and generalised weight gain.
- Addison’s disease: A lack of cortisol or aldosterone from the adrenal glands causes Addison’s disease. Addison’s disease can manifest in a variety of ways, some of which include weakness, a loss of appetite, stomach discomfort, irritability, a need for salt or salty meals, and irregular menstrual cycles.
- Diabetes: Some people with high blood sugar levels may have diabetes. Diabetes is characterised by elevated blood glucose levels (high blood sugar). The two main types of diabetes are type 1 and type 2.
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): Uneven levels of reproductive hormones are a typical cause of this illness. Egg release is irregular or abnormal in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
- Hypogonadism: Hypogonadism, in which testosterone production is inadequate, is a frequent disorder, especially in elderly males and sometimes in girls. This can result in decreased libido and other symptoms including low energy and erectile problems in phalliform individuals.
- Osteoporosis: Bone resorption is the incorrect breakdown of bone tissue that leads to a decrease in bone mass. Only two of the numerous probable reasons for this condition are low oestrogen levels in women and low testosterone levels in men. This decrease in hormone levels might be caused by aging or any number of disorders.
- Acromegaly: Overproduction of growth hormone, which is mostly generated in the pituitary gland, leads to this extremely uncommon condition. This condition, which often affects people in the middle years of life, causes the body’s organs, bones, cartilage, organs, and some tissues to enlarge.
- Primary CNS Lymphoma: Malignant cancer cells from lymph tissue can be discovered in the brain, namely the pituitary gland, and in different sections of the spinal cord, making this kind of non-Hodgkin lymphoma particularly aggressive. In addition, the central nervous system is a target of this particular kind of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
- Metastatic brain tumour: It’s a secondary brain tumour, meaning it developed from another type of cancer that started elsewhere in the body. The hypophyseal pituitary axis, a region of the brain that is rich in blood vessels, is where the majority of the primary tumours metastasize in this form of brain tumour.
- Dermoid tumour: When epidermal or dermoid cells in the brain or spinal cord become carcinogenic, dermoid cysts form. Benign tumours are uncommon, noncancerous growths that progress slowly.
- Pituitary adenoma: Since the lesion is on the predatory gland, it is benign and is not spreading to other places of the body. The majority of instances are contained to the anterior pituitary lobe, never spreading to other regions of the brain. These tissues take their own time maturing and might remain inactive for years at a time.
Endocrine System Test
- Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies: The enzyme known as thyroid peroxidase is necessary for the generation of thyroid hormones; however, proteins tend to assault it in the wrong way. This leads to autoimmune thyroid disease as a consequence.
- Thyroid scan: A very little amount of radioactive iodine is ingested by mouth and then given to the patient so that images of the thyroid gland may be obtained. The thyroid gland contains a significant amount of radioactive iodine, which is found in high concentrations.
- Thyroid biopsy: Thyroid cancer screenings involve removing a small amount of thyroid tissue from the patient. The thyroid is often biopsied using a needle.
- Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): The hypothalamus is responsible for the production of a hormone known as thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), which controls the synthesis of thyroid hormone. In a blood test, abnormally low levels of TSH, as well as abnormally high levels of TSH, are both symptomatic of thyroid diseases, namely hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, respectively.
- T3 and T4 (thyroxine): The primary forms of thyroid hormone that may be determined with a blood test. For the purpose of this test, a fine needle is inserted into the gland that is thought to be infected from any kind of parasitic or non-parasitic infection. The fluid or substance that is located inside the gland is then aspirated, and it is subjected to a number of different diagnostic procedures after being examined under a microscope.
- Pet scan: The procedure is called a positron emission tomography (PET) scan, and it begins with the injection of a radioactive isotope into the gland. Next, a camera and a computer are used to discover and assess any abnormalities that may be present. It has a high degree of sensitivity for identifying activities that might cause cancer in organs.
Endocrine System Treatment
- Craniospinal irradiation: Craniospinal irradiation, often known as CSI, is a form of radiation therapy that is utilised in the treatment of tumours of the central nervous system that have a high likelihood of spreading to the subarachnoid region of the brain. In most cases, low-energy megavoltage photons are employed in the lateral/anterior oblique cranial and posterior spinal fields.
- Surgical resection of tumors: Surgery is frequently the initial course of therapy for patients with brain tumours. Surgery for brain tumours aims to remove as much of the malignant growth as is safe to do so without compromising the patient’s health. Accurate surgical resection is a cornerstone of the treatment paradigm for the majority of patients who are diagnosed with intracranial tumours.
- Stereotactic radiosurgery: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is used to treat minor brain tumours and functional difficulties. Non-invasive radiation beams are used to target the afflicted region. Insulin subcutaneously enhances glucose absorption and reduces blood sugar. Animal insulin or lab-made insulin can be used.
- Pseudocyst drainage: It is possible to drain a pseudocyst by inserting a tube or needle through the skin and into the pseudocyst. A thin tube or stent can be inserted between the pseudocyst and the stomach or small intestine to drain the fluid.
- Pseudocyst surgery: There are situations where only surgery can get rid of a pseudocyst. Laparoscopy (which requires numerous minor incisions) or laparotomy (which includes one large incision) may be used by the surgeon, depending on the circumstances (which involves making one bigger incision).
- Pancreatic cancer resection (Whipple procedure): Removal of the pancreas by surgery is the standard method of treating pancreatic cancer. The duodenum, the first section of the small intestine, the gallbladder, and the top of the pancreas are all removed during the Whipple procedure. In extremely unusual circumstances, a little portion of the stomach may also be removed.
- Pancreas transplantation: When someone with diabetes or cystic fibrosis has a pancreas transplant, the healthy organ is transplanted into their body. In some people, diabetes can be cured by removing their pancreas and transferring it to another person.
- Islet cell transplantation: Transplanting insulin-making cells from a donor’s pancreas into a person with type 1 diabetes is a viable treatment option. It is possible that type 1 diabetes might be cured with the experimental medication.
Endocrine System Medicines
- Anti-thyroid medications for hyperthyroidism: Medication can reduce the overproduction of thyroid hormones in people with hyperthyroidism. Two common anti-thyroid drugs are methimazole and propylthiouracil.
- Thyroid hormone pills for hypothyroidism: A treatment that, when taken regularly, replaces the thyroid hormone your body can no longer generate. Tablets containing thyroid hormones are used to treat hypothyroidism and also to reduce the risk of recurrence of thyroid cancer after surgery.
- Beta Blockers for thyroiditis: Thyroiditis, thyroid cancer, and other chronic and acute thyroid illnesses require the use of beta blockers to keep blood flowing to the thyroid gland. Atenolol, propranolol, and metoprolol are just a few types of beta blockers used in terminal treatment.
- Recombinant human TSH for thyroid carcinoma: The diagnostic accuracy of thyroid cancer may be enhanced by injecting this thyroid-stimulating medication.