Endocrine system notes pdf

Endocrine system notes pdf

  1. Made up of glands that produce and secrete hormones, _________________________
  2. Regulation of growth, metabolism, and ______________________________
  3. Responses to ________________________________
  4. Maintains _____________________________________

Major Structures & Location

1. Pineal
2. Pituitary
3. Thyroid & Parathyroid

4. Thymus
5. Adrenals
6. Pancreas
7. Ovary
8. Testes

Control of Hormonal Secretions – Negative versus Positive Feedback

When the levels go above or below a _______________________, the endocrine system secretes hormones to lower or raise the level.

Positive Feedback

Anterior Pituitary Hormones

Prolactin or PRL –
Growth hormone or GH
Adrenocorticotropin or ACTH –
Thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH -.
Luteinizing hormone or LH –

Follicle-stimulating hormone or FSH

Posterior Pituitary Hormones

Antidiuretic hormone or ADH

The thyroid hormones control your _________________________, which is the body’s ability to break down food and store it as energy

Thyroxin (T4) & Tri-iodothyronine (T3) – increase the rate at which cells release energy from carbohydrates
Calcitonin – regulates the blood concentration of calcium

Hypothyroidism (cretinism)
Hyperthyroidism (Grave’s disease)

Located behind the thyroid, four tiny glands that help maintain calcium and phosphorous levels

Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) – takes calcium from the bones to make it available in the blood

Adrenal Glands Located above each kidney.

Adrenal Cortex = ______________ area Medulla = ______________

Adrenal glands produce _______________________________

Large gland behind stomach, maintains healthy blood sugar (glucose) levels.
Contains islands of cells called the Islets of Langerhans which secrete glucagon and insulin

Glucagon – stimulates the liver to break down glycogen, Raises ______________________________________

Insulin – decreases blood sugar concentrations, affects the ____________________ of glucose by cells
Diabetes Mellitus –insulin deficiency, blood sugar rises (hyperglycemia) and excess is excreted in the urine

Pineal Gland – secretes melatonin which maintains _____________________________

Thymus Gland – large in young children, gradually shrinks with age, secretes thymosins, important to ______________________

Reproductive Glands – testes and ovaries – testosterone, progesterone, estrogen
What is gonadotropin?