Endocrine glands and hormones secreted

Hormones and the Endocrine System

The endocrine system uses hormones to control and coordinate your body’s internal metabolism energy level, reproduction, growth and development, and response to injury, stress, and environmental factors. Consider the following hormones and their role in the workings of the endocrine system:

Where the hormone is produced

Regulates salt, water balance, and blood pressure

Controls key functions in the body; acts as an anti-inflammatory; maintains blood sugar levels, blood pressure, and muscle strength; regulates salt and water balance

Affects water retention in kidneys; controls blood pressure

Controls production of cortisol and other steroids made by the adrenal glands.

Affects growth and development; stimulates protein production; affects fat distribution

Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

Controls production of sex hormones (estrogen in women and testosterone in men) and the production of eggs in women and sperm in men

Stimulates contraction of uterus and milk release in the female breast during breastfeeding. Also increases trust and bonding, especially between parents and children.

Initiates and maintains milk production in breasts; impacts sex hormone levels

Stimulates the production and secretion of thyroid hormones

Controls blood pressure, both directly and also by regulating angiotensin levels and aldosterone production from the adrenal glands

Lowers blood sugar levels; stimulates metabolism of glucose, protein, and fat

Affects development of female sexual characteristics and reproductive development, important for functioning of uterus and breasts; also helps protect bone health

Stimulates the lining of the uterus for fertilization; prepares the breasts for milk production

Plays the most important role in regulating blood calcium levels

Controls metabolism; also affects growth, maturation, nervous system activity, and metabolism

Increases heart rate, oxygen intake, and blood flow

Develops and maintains male sexual characteristics and maturation; also helps protect bone health

Regulates growth hormone release in the pituitary gland

Regulates thyroid stimulating hormone release in the pituitary gland

Regulates LH/FSH production in the pituitary gland

Regulates adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release in the pituitary gland

Helps develop the immune system during puberty